When a Preposition Is an Adverb

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Yesterday I posted an article on the pros and cons of memorizing prepositions (I lean toward con myself). A commenter asked for clarification when I mentioned that sometimes what look like prepositions are actually adverbs. So, I thought I’d provide a refresher on what exactly a preposition is and how you can tell one from a thinly disguised adverb.

The Mysterious Preposition

I understand confusion about prepositions. They are strange words. Useful to be sure, but hard to pin down. You can’t define them in the normal way. Try it for yourself: What’s the definition of with, of, from, on? Prepositions show relationship. They show how a noun or pronoun is related to another word or word group in a sentence. That’s an abstract explanation, I know, so let me try to show you what I mean.

  • Gabby stuck her gum under the table.
  • The project is due before Tuesday.
  • Juneau is the capital of Alaska.

Each of these simple sentences includes a preposition, which I have conveniently underlined for you. Each of them show how a noun is related to something else in the sentence. Under shows how the gum is related to the table in space. The relationship indicated is spatial. Most prepositions are like this — showing location in space.

In the second sentence, before shows when the project is due in relation to Tuesday. The relationship here is chronological — time-oriented.

The last one is the trickiest. Fortunately, the vast majority of prepositions are like the first two — showing spatial or chronological relationship. Of is the oddball, but it is a very common word. In fact of is second only to the in the list of most used words in English! Of is always a preposition and shows a sort of basic relationship that isn’t necessarily related to time or space. If something is of something, it is simply related to it in some way that makes sense to the reader.

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Prepositional Phrases

You can’t understand prepositions without understanding prepositional phrases because prepositions always form a prepositional phrase. Always. That’s important.

A prepositional phrase includes the preposition, its object, and any modifiers related to the object. If you ask “what?” after the preposition, you’ll find its object. For example, in our sample sentences above, ask under what? (the table) before what? (Tuesday) and of what? (Alaska). Table, Tuesday, and Alaska are the objects of their respective prepositions. The prepositional phrases, therefore, are everything from the preposition to its object:

  • Gabby stuck her gum under the table.
  • The project is due before Tuesday.
  • Juneau is the capital of Alaska.
When Adverbs Look Like Prepositions

Now that you’ve got prepositions down, I can explain how it’s easy to confuse them with adverbs. Many words can serve in either of these roles in a sentence. Here’s the easy way to tell which is which:

If it has an object, it’s a preposition, if it doesn’t, it’s an adverb.

Simple as that. If you are one of those people who have memorized the prepositions and you spot one in a sentence, before you mark it down as a preposition, make sure it has an object (ask preposition what?). For example:

  • Billy ran up the stairs.
  • Billy looked up and saw the alien spacecraft.

Both sentences include the word up. We know up is often a preposition, but let’s check. Does it have an object? In the first sentence it does: stairs. Up what? Up the stairs.

H0w about the second sentence? Up what? Well, um, hmm. There’s no answer because there’s no object. Up in this example is being used as an adverb to modify the verb looked. It shows how or where Billy looked.

Think you’ve got it? Click the link below and take the quiz I’ve created to see if you can tell when a common preposition is being used as an adverb. It’s free!

Quiz Link *****

Leave us a comment!

About the Author

Brian Wasko

Brian WaskoBrian is the founder and president of WriteAtHome.com. One of his passions is to teach young people how to write better.View all posts by Brian Wasko

  1. Liem Nguyen
    Liem Nguyen06-29-2015

    Dear Brian,

    Your article is helpful.

    After reading your article, I tried to figure out the differences between verb+ preposition and verb+ adverb.
    It’s my own reasoning. I don’t know whether it is right or not. I hope you give me some advice

    1) Billy ran up the stairs.
    ( to run up = verb + preposition. It is a prepositional verb, and “the stair” is direct object) The prepositional verb does’t change the meaning of the original verb. That makes it differ from a phrasal verb. Ex: to give up = to abandon. He gave up his house. (to give up = transitive phrasal verb has a direct object (house) . That differs with Intransitive phrasal verb which never has an object.

    2) To look up (look + up-adverb)
    Billy looked up and saw the alien spacecraft.
    Ex: I go upstairs ( or I go downstairs) – upstairs and downstairs are adverb.

    But the other grammar using of “to look up” is a phrasal verb, too ( verb + adverb or particle)

    to look up ( excerpt from The Free Dictionary online)
    1. To search for and find, as in a reference book.

    2. To visit: look up an old friend. ( my note: an old friend = direct object of transitive phrasal verb “to look up)

    3. To become better; improve: Things are at last looking up. (my opinion: looking up = intransitive phrasal verb).

    Thanks,
    LN

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko06-29-2015

      You have an excellent grasp of the differences.

      My only minor correction has to do with your explanation of #1: Billy ran up the stairs. I’m not familiar with the idea of a “prepositional verb.” The verb in this sentence, as I see it, is “ran.” “Up the stairs” is an adverbial prepositional phrase. The phrase is prepositional because it begins with a preposition, and it is adverbial because the whole thing modifies the verb.

      Otherwise, you explain things well.

  2. Kirsten
    Kirsten05-21-2015

    I found this page while doing some research for my 8 year old. He had an assignment to use the word “above” as an adverb and wrote the sentence “The rain fell from above.” I’m pretty sure “above” isn’t an adverb in this context, but what is it? “from” is a preposition in the sentence, can “above” also be a preposition, or does it have another function here? It would be great if you could clarify for me as this has niggled at me for a couple of days now! I love your blog and will be referring to it often in future :)

    • John Bruce
      John Bruce05-28-2015

      If a noun is a person, place, or thing (a bit of an oversimplification, I know), then in your example, I believe that ABOVE is functioning as a noun (place) and is, therefore, the object of the preposition FROM. Similarly, in the phrase “truly a gift from above,” ABOVE functions as a noun of place and is again the object of the preposition FROM. :)

      • Brian Wasko
        Brian Wasko06-02-2015

        You are correct. Above is a noun in that usage. Thanks.

  3. John Bruce
    John Bruce05-14-2015

    This is a good review, but one question on your quiz asserts that “above” in the phrase “Pray to the Lord above” is an adverb. Actually, in this context, “above” is a word of place set before a noun in the character of an adjective, not a preposition or an adverb. One is not praying above, but praying to God, who is above. Although a largely obsolete construction, it is still used to for terms such as “God above,” “Lord above,” and “Heaven above.”

    • John Bruce
      John Bruce05-14-2015

      Pardon fat-finger typos. :)

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko05-17-2015

      You are correct, John. We’ll fix that question.

      • John Bruce
        John Bruce05-28-2015

        Great blog. You give my aging brain a good workout. :)

  4. Alan
    Alan04-16-2015

    Another example of confusion with adverbs is in the cases where the adverb is made of two combined preposition. Some examples are:

    Thereon
    Whereat
    Herein
    ,
    Some of these may be considered archaic though, but not all. All examples of which I am aware are of the form There, Where, or Here occurring in the first half and in, at, or on in the second half. If there are others, then I would be interested therein.

  5. Mai
    Mai01-16-2015

    Hi Brian,
    Thank you so much for your clear explanation. It makes me more understand on this topic. However, I am still confused about “for” and “since”. Are they classified as “Adverb of time” or “Preposition of time”? I’ve already tried asking “what?” after the preposition. Then, every sentence found its object. Does this mean “for & since” is “Preposition of time”?
    e.g. – I have worked here since 2005. – They have been at the coffee shop for 4 hours.

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko01-19-2015

      In both cases, it depends upon context. A word’s part of speech can only be determined by how it is used in a sentence. For can be used as a preposition or a conjunction. It also has a function in certain phrasal verbs, like go for, try for, and look out for. Some view this function as an adverb. I prefer to call it a particle. But this use is rare, and that’s why you don’t see any adverb definitions of the word for. If it is followed by an object — as in your examples — it is a preposition, though not necessarily a “preposition of time.” It’s only a preposition of time when it refers to time — as in “I’ve been here for an hour.” That would not be the case in a sentence like “He went to the store for some ice cream.”

      Since, on the other hand is commonly used as either as an adverb or a preposition (it can also function as a conjunction: I lost since Ed is a better player.) As I explain in this article, if since is followed by an object — if there is an answer to the question since what? — it is a preposition. If not — if it merely modifies a verb — it is an adverb.

      In your example — I have worked here since 2005since is a preposition (of time). Its object is the year 2005. But in a sentence like I haven’t seen him since, since is an adverb.

      So, the answer is that both for and since are prepositions of time — sometimes. But not always.

      • Mai
        Mai01-20-2015

        Thanks again for your kind clarification.
        If you have a chance to travel in Bangkok (Thailand), it would be my pleasure to be your guide. ^__^

        • Brian Wasko
          Brian Wasko01-20-2015

          I hope I get the opportunity to take you up on that one day, Mai!

  6. Hend
    Hend12-22-2014

    Excellent explanation; very clear and to the point. Thanks Brian!

  7. Betty
    Betty10-24-2014

    To my surprise, she drank up the whole bottle of wine.
    what is “UP” here

    >< Please help me

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko10-24-2014

      Good one.

      Up is a particle here. A particle is a word that doesn’t fit into any of the eight parts of speech.

      Drink up is a phrasal verb — a verb formed by combining a verb with a preposition (though once it’s part of the phrasal verb it no longer functions like a preposition). Phrasal verbs are very common. The words work together to create a special idiomatic meaning that is different from what we’d mean if the particle (in this case up) worked like an adverb. When you drink up, you don’t drink in an up way or in an up direction. When you put drink and up together, it means something unique.

      Make sense? Read more about phrasal verbs here.

      • Betty
        Betty10-24-2014

        Hi, Brian
        thank you very much
        but I still confused because I saw the essay on https://zh.scribd.com/doc/4007449/Multi-Word-Verbs.

        >< could you help me

        • Brian Wasko
          Brian Wasko10-25-2014

          Hi Betty.

          The author/s of that article consider the “preposition” part of a phrasal verb to be an adverb. I call it a particle because it doesn’t typically act like an adverb (or a preposition). But that’s fine. Grammars vary on these kinds of things. It doesn’t really matter.

          For example, take these three sentences:

          1. Look up the chimney.
          2. Open your eyes and look up!
          3. Look up obsequious in the dictionary.

          All three sentences contain look up. In #1, up is a preposition that creates the prepositional phrase “up the chimney” which modifies the verb look. In #2, up is an adverb modifying look – it shows where to look. In #3, however, up is neither a preposition (no object, no phrase) nor an adverb. It does not modify look by indicating how or where to look. Look up is a phrasal verb with a unique meaning when talking about reference books.

          It makes sense to me to think of the up in #3 as performing a function different than the up in #2. That’s why I call it an adverb in #2 and a particle in #3.

          I’ve seen other texts that call it an adverb like in the article you linked to. But there are also others that do it my way. There are different ways of thinking about grammar that are all valid.

          I liked the way they divided “multi-word verbs” into three groups. I’m not sure how helpful that is, but I get it. I’d never seen that before.

  8. Betty
    Betty10-24-2014

    hi,Brian
    I am a little confused><
    thank you

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko10-24-2014

      I think that’s the first time I’ve been thanked for confusing somebody. You’re welcome! :)

  9. leandrea
    leandrea10-13-2014

    can i say
    the girl looked over the road—- preposition
    n
    she ran over ——adverb

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko10-14-2014

      I’m not sure I understand your question, Leandrea, but I think you are correct. Over in “over the road” is a preposition, and over in “She ran over” is a adverb.

      • leandrea
        leandrea10-15-2014

        thanks so much for the info

  10. Anu Kalra
    Anu Kalra08-12-2014

    Your explanations are very easy to understand.Thanks a lot.I am surely going to recommend your blog to my middle school students.

  11. S. Senovich
    S. Senovich05-29-2014

    Hi Brian. I am hoping you will be able to help me identify the part of speech “walk” is in the following sentence; We watched the students walk by.

    Thank you, in advance, for your help!

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko05-30-2014

      Sure. It’s a verb.

      If you are interested, I can explain further. The simple subject of the sentence is we and the simple predicate (main verb) is watched. That part’s easy.

      The clause “the students walk by” is what we call a noun clause — a whole clause that functions together like a noun. It is what the we in the sentence watched. The clause functions identically to the word movie in the sentence We watched the movie. In other words, the clause “the students walk by” is the direct object of the verb watched.

      Now, clauses are word groups that have their own internal grammar too — they have a subject and predicate for example. In this noun clause, students is the subject and walk is the predicate (verb). By is an adverb here, modifying walk and showing how or where the walking happens.

      Does that help?

  12. guilherme
    guilherme09-27-2013

    Hi Brian,

    I’m Brazilian and have been teaching English for a while. I was wondering if you could give me a hand on two topics:

    1) what’s the difference between idioms and frasal verbs?
    2) what’s the difference between prepositional frasal verbs and adverbial phrasl verbs?

    I look forward to getting your hints
    Best Regards
    Guilherme

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko09-27-2013

      Hi Guilherme,

      Glad to help. Let me get to your questions.

      1) Phrasal verbs are a type of idiom. Not all idioms are phrasal verbs, but all phrasal verbs (as far as I know) are idioms. An idiom is simply a “way of saying” something in a given language that doesn’t translate well literally. A phrasal verb is a verb composed of a verb and a particle (a preposition that isn’t acting like a preposition or adverb). So, “give up” doesn’t mean to “give something” in an “up” direction. It means something else entirely (to surrender or stop trying). That’s what makes it an idiom.

      2) I’m not familiar with the terms “prepositional phrasal verbs” or “adverbial phrasal verbs.”

      A word like “up” can be used as a preposition (The man climbed up the ladder.) Or it can be used as an adverb (Throw the ball up.) Or it can be a particle in a phrasal verb (I need to look up “particle” in the dictionary).

      I hope that helps. Maybe you could clarify what you mean by your second question. Perhaps I misunderstood it.

      • guilherme
        guilherme09-27-2013

        Hi Brian,

        To start off with, I want to say thanks a lot for your promptness to answer my questions. I really appreciate it. I guess I made you misunderstand my second question. I am sorry because it was my fault,.. What I meant was the following: I really don’t understand the difference between a prepositional verb and a phrasal verb. How about Adverbial phrases? How does it sound to you now? Probably, that’s the terminology I should have used before. As for my first question, It was really easy to understand your explanation.One more time thanks a lot for your kind help.

        Regards from Brazil
        Guilherme

        • Brian Wasko
          Brian Wasko09-29-2013

          Hi again, Guilherme,

          I am not familiar with the term “prepositional verb.” Read the article I linked to below–it may help you understand how a word that is normally a preposition can be combined with a verb to form a phrasal verb. Maybe that will answer your question.

          I can help you with adverbial phrases though. :) A phrase is a group of words that works together like a single part of speech. When that group of words functions like an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase.

          For example. In the sentence, “Tom walks quickly” the adverb “quickly” modifies the verb “walks,” showing how Tom walks.

          You can use a phrase the same way: “Tom walks down the street.” In this sentence, “down the street” modifies “walks” the same way “quickly” did in the previous sentence. It shows how (or where) Tom walks.

          You might recognize “down the street” as a prepositional phrase. It’s that too. Any phrase that starts with a preposition (like “down”) and ends with the object of the preposition (like “street”) is known as a prepositional phrase. But all prepositional phrases ALSO function like adjectives or adverbs, so they are also either adjective phrases or adverb phrases.

          How’s that?

          • guilherme
            guilherme10-01-2013

            That’s awesome Brian !!

            One more time thanks a bunch for your help.

            Regards

            Guilherme

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko09-27-2013

      Here’s an article I wrote recently that may help:

      http://blog.writeathome.com/index.php/2013/09/what-is-a-phrasal-verb/

  13. lizzy
    lizzy08-12-2013

    nice article, REALLY helped me out a lot:) but could you help me with this sentence? ‘Run to the store across the street and pick up and gallon of milk, please ‘
    what is ‘up’ ?

    • lizzy
      lizzy08-12-2013

      *correction- pick up A gallon of milk

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko08-12-2013

      Sure, Lizzy. You’ve identified a topic I’m hoping to address soon on the blog–something called a phrasal verb.

      Some verbs in English are actually a combination of a verb and a particle (a word that doesn’t fit into normal part of speech categories). These particles typically resemble prepositions. These two words need each other to form the verb.

      Notice the difference in how the words “look up” are used in these two sentences:

      “Look up and see the sky.”
      “Look up “particle” in the dictionary.”

      In the first one, “up” is an adverb modifying the verb “look” (showing how to look). In the second, “look up” is a different verb altogether. The two words work together to create a particular meaning. This latter use is an example of a phrasal verb.

      “Pick up” in your sentence is an example of a phrasal verb. It’s not just “picking” something in the “up” direction :) , “pick up” means something different. So, in this case, “up” is part of the phrasal verb “pick up.” Make sense?

      Other common phrasal verbs: give up, come over, blow up, call off, point out, turn down.

      • Brian Wasko
        Brian Wasko08-12-2013

        I just realized you used a phrasal verb in your original question: help out. :)

        • Lizzy
          Lizzy08-13-2013

          Wow, that makes a lot of sense now :D
          Oh yeah, I did! Thank you so much!

  14. Benedict Tiu
    Benedict Tiu08-12-2013

    Nice explanation. But I have this sentence that really confuses me..
    His new car drove over that large box in the street yesterday. What is “over”?

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko08-12-2013

      Hi Benedict. “Over” is a preposition in your sentence. If you ask “over what?” The answer is “that large box.” So you have a prepositional phrase: “over that large box.” FYI, that phrase is also adverbial–it shows how/where the car drove.

      Make sense?

  15. venkata reddy.v
    venkata reddy.v06-18-2013

    i am really thankful to you(Brian Wasko) for your clear explanation on confusion between preposition and adverb(only in certain words like up,outside…..)

    • Brian Wasko
      Brian Wasko06-18-2013

      Well, I’m glad you found this post helpful, Venkata. Thanks for taking the time to leave a nice comment. :)

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